Race and the Cold War

The shocking police killing of George Floyd on May 25, 2020, and the massive protests that have followed remind us of the centrality of race and racism in historical and contemporary life, in this country and around the world. The crisis has elicited many responses from members of our campus community, including this Statement on the Floyd Uprising by the UCSB Department of History. Ideas about race and ethnicity have always been integral to the Cold War and have long been the focus of Cold War scholarship. The following lists of secondary and primary sources provide, we hope, a useful starting point for scholars and others wishing to explore these connections further.

This resource is curated and maintained by Addie Jensen, CCWS Fellow, 2019-2021.

If you would like to suggest a title to add to this list, please contact Addie at


Secondary Sources

Propaganda and Perceptions of Race During the Cold War 

Ancheta, Angelo N. Race, Rights, and the Asian American Experience. 2nd ed. Rutgers, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2006.

Belmonte, Laura A. Selling the American Way: U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Borstelmann, Thomas. The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Carew, Joy Gleason. Blacks, Reds, and Russians: Sojourners in Search of the Soviet Promise. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Deconde, Alexander, Ethnicity, Race, and American Foreign Policy: A History. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992.

Dower, John W. “Epilogue: From War to Peace” in War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986. [Book Chapter]

Horne, Gerald. “Race from Power: U.S. Foreign Policy and the General Crisis of ‘White Supremacy,’” Diplomatic History 23 (Summer 1999): 437-461. [Journal Article]

Hochschild, Jennifer. Facing up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul of the Nation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Klein, Christina. Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945- 1961. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Lauren, Paul Gordon. Power and Prejudice: The Politics and Diplomacy of Racial Discrimination. Boulder: Westview, 1988.

Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. Racial Formation in the United States, 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

Plummer, Brenda Gayle. “Making ‘Brown Babies’: Race and Gender after World War II,” in Body and Nation: The Global Realm of U.S. Body Politics in the Twentieth Century. Edited  by Emily S. Rosenberg and Shannon Fitzpatrick, London: Duke University Press, 2014. [Book Chapter]

Preiswerk, Roy. “Race and Colour in International Relations,” in The Year Book of World Affairs, 1970 (London: Stevens, 1970), 76, n. 65. [Journal Article]

Shibusawa, Naoko. America’s Geisha Ally: Reimagining the Japanese Enemy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006.

Von Eschen, Penny M. Satchmo Blows Up the World: Jazz Ambassadors Play the Cold War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Von Eschen, Penny M. Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937-1957. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Wu Tzu-Chun, Judy. Radicals on the Road: Internationalism, Orientalism, and Feminism During the Vietnam War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013.


The Cold War, Black Internationalism, and the International Civil Rights Movement 

Andemicael, Berhanykun. The OAU and the UN: Relations between the Organization of African Unity and the United Nations. New York: Published for the United Nations Institute for Training and Research by Africana Pub., 1976.

Anderson, Carol. Bourgeois Radicals: The NAACP and the Struggle for Colonial Liberation, 1941-1960. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Anderson, Carol. Eyes off the Prize: The United Nations and the African American Struggle for Human Rights, 1944-1955. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Arnesen, Eric. "'No Graver Danger': Black Anti-Communism, the Communist Party, and the Race Issue." Labor: Studies in Working Class History of the Americas 3, no. 4 (Winter 2006): 13-52. [Journal Article]

Berg, Manfred. “Black Civil Rights and Liberal Anticommunism: The NAACP and the Early Cold War.” Journal of American History 94 (June 2007): 75-96. [Journal Article]

Carter, David C. The Music Went out of the Movement: Civil Rights and the Johnson Administration. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Cheng, Charles W. “The Cold War: Its Impact on the Black Liberation Struggle within the United States.” Freedomways: A Quarterly Review of the Freedom Movement 13, no. 3 (1973): 281-93. [Journal Article]

Cone, James. “Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Third World.” Journal of American History 74, no. 2 (September 1987): 455-67. [Journal Article]

Dudziak, Mary L. “Desegregation as a Cold War Imperative,” Stanford Law Review 41/1, November 1988. [Journal Article]

Dudziak, Mary. “The Little Rock Crisis and Foreign Affairs: Race, Resistance, and the Image of American Democracy,” Southern California Law Review 70/6 (September 1997): 1641-716. [Journal Article]

Dudziak, Mary L. Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Diplomacy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Ellis, Mark. Race, War, and Surveillance: African Americans and the United States. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press, 2001.

Gaines, Kevin Kelly. American Africans in Ghana: Black Expatriates and the Civil Rights Era. John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Graham, Hugh Davis. “Richard Nixon and Civil Rights: Explaining an Enigma.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 26, no. 1 (Winter 1996): 93-106. [Journal Article]

Harrison, Benjamin T. “Impact of the Vietnam War on the Civil Rights Movement in the Midsixties.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 19, no. 3 (1996): 261-278. [Journal Article]

Horne, Gerald. Black and Red: W.E.B. DuBois and Afro-American Response to the Cold War. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1986.

Hostetter, David. Movement Matters: American Antiapartheid Activism and the Rise of Multicultural Politics. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Janken, Kenneth R. “From Colonial Liberation to Cold War Liberalism: Walter White, the NAACP, and Foreign Affairs, 1941-1955.” Journal of Ethnic and Racial Studies 21, no. 6 (November 1998): 1074-91. [Journal Article]

Krenn, Michael L. Black Diplomacy: African Americans and the State Department, 1945-1969. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1999.

Krenn, Michael L., ed. The African American Voice in U.S Foreign Policy. New York: Garland, 1999.

Lauren, Paul Gordon. Power and Prejudice: The Politics and Diplomacy of Racial Discrimination. 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.

Liberman, Robbie, and Clarence Lang, eds. Anti-Communism and the African American Freedom Movement: “Another Side of the Story.” New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

McCoy, Donald R. and Richard T. Ruetten. Quest and Response: Minority Rights and the Truman Administration. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas, 1973.

Noer, Thomas J., Cold War and Black Liberation: The United States and White Rule in Africa, 1948-1968. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1985.

Noer, Thomas J. “Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Cold War.” Peace and Change 22, no. 2 (April 1997): 111-131. [Journal Article]

Plummer, Brenda Gayle. Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935-1960. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Plummer, Brenda Gayle, editor. Window on Freedom: Race, Civil Rights, and Foreign Affairs 1945-1988. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2003. 

Plummer, Brenda Gayle. In Search of Power: African Americans in the Era of Decolonization, 1956-1974. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Roark James L. “American Black Leaders: The Response of Colonialism and the Cold War.” African Historical Studies 4, no. 2 (1971): 253-70. [Journal Article] 

Romano, Renee. “No Diplomatic Immunity: African Diplomats, the State Department, and Civil Rights, 1961-1964,” Journal of American History 87 (September 2000): 546-579.  [Journal Article]

Skrentny, John David. “The Effect of the Cold War on African-American Civil Rights: America and the World Audience, 1945-1968,” in Theory and Society, Vol. 27, No. 2 (April 1998), pp. 237-285. [Journal Article]

Von Eschen, Penny M. Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937-1957. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Walraven, Klaas van. Dreams of Power: The Role of the Organization of African Unity in the Politics of Africa, 1963-1993. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999.

Wilkins, Fanon Che. “The Making of Black Internationalists: SNCC and Africa before the Launching of Black Power, 1960-1965.” Journal of African American History 92, no. 4 (September 2007): 468-91. [Journal Article]

Woods, Jeff. Black Struggle, Red Scare: Segregation and Anti-Communism in the South, 1948-1968. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

Woods, Jeff. “The Cold War and the Struggle for Civil Rights.” OAH Magazine of History 24 (October 2010): 13-17. [Journal Article]


Russia and the Soviet Union

Hessler, Julie. “Death of an African Student in Moscow: Race, Politics, and the Cold War.” Cahiers du Monde Russe 47, no. 1/2 (2006), 33-63. [Journal Article] 

Matusevich, Maxim. “Soviet Antiracism and Its Discontents,” in The Cold War Years in Alternative Globalizations: Eastern Europe and the Postcolonial World, edJames Mark, Artemy M. Kalinovsky, and Steffi Marung (BloomingtonIndiana University Press, 2017), 229-250. [Journal Article] 

Rainbow, David, ed. Ideologies of Race: Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union in Global Context. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2019.

Weitz, Eric D. “Racial Politics Without the Concept of Race: Reevaluating Soviet Ethnic and National Purges.” Slavic Review 61, no. 1 (2002): 1-29. [Journal Article] 

Zakharov, Nikolay. Attaining Whiteness: A Sociological Study of Race and Racialization in Russia. Uppsala: Uppsala University Press, 2013.


Race and the Military Conflicts of the Cold War


Phillips, Kimberley. War! What Is It Good for? Black Freedom Struggles and the U.S. Military from World War II to Iraq. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Latty, Yvonne, and Ron Tarver. We Were There: Voices of African American Veterans from World Wat II to the War in Iraq. New York: Amistad, 2004.

Murray, Paul T. “Blacks and the Draft: A History of Institutional Racism.” Journal of Black Studies 2, no. 1 (September 1971): 57-76. [Journal Article]

Murray, Paul T. “Local Draft Board Composition and Institutional Racism.” Social Problems 19, no. 1 (Summer 1971): 129-37. [Journal Article]

Nalty, Bernard C. Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military, New York: Free Press, 1986.


The Korean War

Bowers, William T. Black Soldier, White Army: The 24th Infantry Regiment in Korea.1996.  

Graves, Kori A. A War Born Family: African American Adoption in the Wake of the Korean War. New York: NYU Press, 2020.

Maxwell, Jeremy P. Brotherhood in Combat: How African Americans Found Equality in Korea and Vietnam. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2018.

McLaurin, Melton A. The Marines of Montford Point: America’s First Black Marines. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Pope Jr., O. Eliot. “Forgotten Soldiers from a Forgotten War: Oral History Testimonies of African American Korean War Veterans.” Loyola University Chicago. 2017. [Dissertation]

Taylor, Jon E. Freedom to Serve: Truman, Civil Rights, and Executive Order 9981. New York: Routledge, 2013.


The Vietnam War

Berg, Manfred. “Guns, Butter, and Civil Rights: The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Vietnam War, 1964-1968.” In Aspects of War in American History, ed. David K. Adams and Cornelis A. Van Minne, 213-38. Keele, UL: European Papers in American History. [Journal Article]

Darby, Henry, and Margaret N. Rowley. “King on Vietnam and Beyond.” Phylon 47, MO. 1 (March 1986): 43-50. [Journal Article]

Eldridge, Lawrence Allen. Chronicles of a Two-Front War: Civil Rights and Vietnam in the African American Press. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2009.

Emanuel, Ed. Soul Patrol. New York: Ballantine Books, 2003.

Graham III, Herman. The Brothers’ Vietnam War: Black Power, Manhood, and the Military Experience. Orlando: University Press of Florida, 2003.

Fairclough, Adam. “Martin Luther King, Jr. and the War in Vietnam,” Phylon 45/1 (Spring 1984): 19-39. [Journal Article]

Kimbrough, Natalie. Equality of Discrimination? African Americans in the U.S. Military during the Vietnam War. New York: University Press of America, 2006.

King, William M. “A White Man’s War: Race Issues and Vietnam.” Vietnam Generation, Volume 1, Number 2. April 1989. [Special Journal Issue]

Lucks, Daniel S. Selma to Saigon: The Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War. Kentucky: University of Kentucky Press, 2014.

Mack, Adam, “No ‘Illusion of Separation’: James L. Bevel, the Civil Rights Movement,and the Vietnam War.” Peace and Change 28, no. 1 (January 2003): 108-33. [Journal Article]

Man, Simeon. “Fighting Gooks: Asian Americans in the Vietnam War,” in Soldiering and Empire: Race and the Making of the Decolonizing Pacific. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2018. [Book Chapter]

Marsical, George. Aztlan and Viet Nam: Chicano and Chicana Experiences of the War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Oropeza, Lorena. Raza sí!, Guerra No!: Chicano Protest and Patriotism during the Viet Nam War Era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Rosales, Steven. “Aztlan and Vietnam,” in Soldados Razos at War: Chicano Politics,Identity, and Masculinity in the U.S. Military from World War II to Vietnam. Phoenix: The University of Arizona Press, 2017.  [Book Chapter]

Shapiro, Herbert. “The Vietnam War and the American Civil Rights Movement.” Journal of Ethnic Studies 16 (Winter 1989): 117-141.

Sherwood, John Darrell. Black Sailor, White Navy: Racial Unrest in the Fleet during the Vietnam War Era. New York: New York University Press, 2007.

Taylor, Clyde, ed. Vietnam and Black America: An Anthology of Protest and Resistance. Garden City, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1973.

Trujillo, Charley. Soldados: Chicanos in Vietnam. San Jose: Chusma House Publications, 1990.

Westheider, James E. Fighting on Two Fronts: African Americans and the Vietnam War. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Westheider, James E. The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2008. 

Wu, Judy Tzu- Chu. “An African-Vietnamese American: Robert S. Browne, the Antiwar Movement, and the Personal/Political Dimensions of Black Internationalism.”Journal of African American History 92, no. 4 (Autumn 2007): 491-515.        

Ybarra, Lea. Vietnam Veteranos: Chicanos Recall the War. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.


Third World Engagements


Chamberlin, Paul Thomas. The Cold War’s Killing Fields: Rethinking the Long Peace. New York: HarperCollins, 2018.

Ewing, Cindy. "The United States and the Third World." In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Immerman, Richard H. and Petra Goedde, ed. The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Note: Part II- Regional Cold Wars/Cold War Crises and Part IV- Challenging the Cold War Paradigm (Chapters on “Decolonization and the Cold War,” “Human Rights,” and “Race and the Cold War”).

Lloyd, Jenna M. and Alison Mountz. Boats, Borders, and Bases: Race, the Cold War, and the Rise of Migration Detention in the United States. Oakland: Oakland University Press, 2018.

Luthi, Lorenz M. Cold War: Asia, the Middle East, Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

McMahon, Robert J. The Cold War in the Third World.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Parker, Jason. Hearts, Minds, Voices: U.S. Public Diplomacy and the Formation of the Third World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Solomon, Mark. “Black Critics of Colonialism and the Cold War," in Thomas G. Paterson, ed., Cold War Critics. New York: Quadrangle Books, 1971.

Vitalis, Robert. White World Order, Black Power Politics: The Birth of American International Relations

Westad, Odd Arne. The Cold War: A World History. First ed. New York: Basic Books, 2017.

Westad, Odd Arne. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. Cambridge University Press, 2005.



Baker, Pauline. The United States and South Africa: The Reagan Years. The Ford Foundation and the Foreign Policy Association, 1989.

Barber, James, and John Barratt. South Africa's Foreign Policy: The Search for Status and Security, 1945-1988. Cambridge [England]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Bendix, Sonia. Industrial Relations in South Africa. 3rd ed. Cape Town: Juta, 1996

Bissell, Richard E. South Africa and the United States: The Erosion of an Influence Relationship. Studies of Influence in International Relations. New York, N.Y.: Praeger, 1982.

Borstelmann, Thomas. Apartheid’s Reluctant Uncle: The United States and Southern Africa in the Early Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Coker, Christopher. The United States and South Africa, 1968-1985: Constructive Engagement and Its Critics. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1986.

Culverson, Donald. Contesting Apartheid: US Activism, 1960-1987. Boulder: Westview Press, 1999.

De Meneses, Filipe Ribeiro, and Robert McNamara. The White Redoubt, the Great Powers and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1960–1980. Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2018.

DeRoche, Andrew. Black, White, and Chrome: The United States and Zimbabwe, 1953-1998. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, Inc., 2001.

DeRoche, Andrew J. Andrew Young: Civil Rights Ambassador. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2003.

Ewing, Cindy. "The Colombo Powers: Crafting Diplomacy in the Third World and Launching Afro-Asia at Bandung," Cold War History 19, 1 (2019): 1-19. [Journal Article]

Gaines, Kevin. African Americans in Ghana: Black Expatriates and the Civil Rights Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.       

Gleijeses, Piero. Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Gleijeses, Piero. Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria, and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1976-1991. New Cold War History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

Hauck, David, Meg Voorhes, and Glenn Goldberg. Two Decades of Debate: The Controversy Over U.S. Companies in South Africa. Washington, D.C.: Investor Responsibility Center, 1983.

Irogbe, Kema. The Roots of United States Foreign Policy toward Apartheid South Africa. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1997.

Jackson, Henry F. From the Congo to Soweto: U.S. Foreign Policy towards Africa since 1960. New York: Morrow, 1982.

Leape, Jonathan, Bo Baskin and Stefan Underhill, ed. Business in the Shadow of Apartheid: US Firms in South Africa. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C, Heath and Company, 1985.

Lynch, Hollis R. Black American Radicals and the Liberation of Africa: The Council on African Affairs. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977.

Lyman, Princeton N. Partner to History: The U.S. Role in South Africa's Transition to Democracy. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2002.

Magaziner, Daniel. The Law and the Prophets: Black Consciousness in South Africa 1968-1977. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2010.

Massie, Kinloch. Loosing the Bonds: The United States and South Africa in the Apartheid Years. New York: Doubleday, 1997.

Meriwether, James H. Proudly We Can be Africans: Black Americans and Africa, 1935-1961. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Minter, William. King Solomon’s Mines Revisited: Western Interests and the Burdened History of Southern Africa. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Minter, William, Gail Hovery, and Charles E. Cobb. No Easy Victories: African Liberation and American Activists over a Half Century, 1950-2000. Trenton, NJ. Africa World Press, 2007.

Mitchell, Nancy. Jimmy Carter in Africa: Race and the Cold War. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2016.

Nesbitt, Francis Njubi. Race for Sanctions: African Americans against Apartheid, 1946-1994. Blacks in the Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.

Razis, Vic. The American Connection: The Influence of US Business on South Africa. Frances Pinter , London, 1986.

Rycroft, Alan and Barney Jordan. A Guide to South African Labour Law. Cape Town: Juta, 1992.

Seidman, Ann Willcox and Oxfam America. The Roots of Crisis in Southern Africa. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1985.

Thomas, A.M. The American Predicament: Apartheid and United States Foreign Policy. (Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing Company, 1997.

Thomson, Alex. Conflict of Interests: US Foreign Policy towards Apartheid South Africa, 1948-1994. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Thomson, Alex. Incomplete Engagement: U.S. Foreign Policy towards the Republic of South Africa, 1981-1988. Brookfield, VT: Avebury, 1996.

Woods, Jeff. Black Struggle, Red Scare: Segregation and Anti-Communism in the South, 1948-1968. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.


East Asia

Brazinsky, Gregg A. Nation Building in South Korea: Koreans, Americans and the Making of a Democracy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Dower, John. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.

Iacobelli, Pedro and Hiroko Matsuda (eds.), Rethinking Postwar Okinawa: Beyond American Occupation, Lexington Books, 2017.

Note: Contains chapters on race and transnational activist movements, etc.

Johnson, Akemi. Night in the American Village: Women in the Shadow of the US Military Bases in Okinawa. The New Press, 2019.

Note: Discusses life in Okinawa today, but contains significant sections centered on white/black/Okinawan/Japanese race-relations on Okinawa during the Cold War. 

Koikari, Mire. Cold War Encounters in US-Occupied Okinawa, Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Lui, Mary Ting Yi, “Sammy Lee: Narratives of Asian American Masculinity and Race in Decolonizing Asia,” in Body and Nation: The Global Realm of U.S. Body Politics in the Twentieth Century, edited by Emily S. Rosenberg and Shannon Fitzpatrick.  London: Duke University Press, 2014. [Book Chapter]

Onishi, Yuichiro. Transpacific Antiracism: Afro-Asian Solidarity in 20th Century Black America, Japan, and Okinawa, NYU Press, 2013.

Orr, James J. The Victim as Heroes: Ideologies of Peace and National Identity in Postwar Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2001.

Schaller, Michael. The American Occupation of Japan: The Origins of the Cold War in Asia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Shimabuku, Annmaria. Alegal: Biopolitics and the Unintelligibility of Okinawan Life, NY: Fordham University Press, 2018.

Short, Courtney. "'The Most Vital Question’: Race and Identity in Occupation Policy Construction and Practice, Okinawa, 1945-1946,” PhD dissertation (History), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2015. [Dissertation]

Ueunten, Wesley. "Rising up from a sea of discontent: the 1970 Koza Uprising in US-occupied Okinawa," in Militarized Currents: Towards a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific (ed. Keith Camacho, U Minnesota Press, 2010), 91-124. [Journal Article] 

Welty, Lily Anne Yumi. “Okinawa’s Mixed Race People: Third Spaces and Tripartite Colonialism,” Imin Kenkyū (Immigration Studies) 7 (2011): 85-96. [Journal Article]

Zhai, Quiang. China and the Vietnam Wars, 1950-1975. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Zhang, Xiaoming, ed. Deng Xiaoping’s Lost War: The Military Conflict between China and Vietnam, 1979-1991. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018.


South Asia

Bhagavan, Manu, ed. India and the Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019.

Brands Jr., H.W. India and the United States: The Cold Peace. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990.

Ewing, Cindy. “Codifying Minority Rights: Postcolonial Constitutionalism in Burma, Ceylon, and India.” In Decolonization, Self-Determination, and the Rise of Global Human Rights Politics, edited by A. Dirk Moses, Marco Duranti, and Roland Burke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020. [Book Chapter]

Isaacs, Harold R. Scratches on Our Minds: American Views of China and India. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1980.

Kux, Dennis. The United States and Pakistan 1947-2000: Disenchanted Allies. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2001.

McMahon, Robert J., The Cold War on the Periphery: The United States, India, and Pakistan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. 

Rotter, Andrew J. Comrades at Odds: The United States and India, 1947-1961. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Venkataramani, M.S. The American Role in Pakistan, 1947-1958. New Delhi: Radiant Publishers, 1982.


Latin America

Field, Thomas C. Jr., Stella Krepp, Vanni Pettina, ed. Latin America and the Global Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2020.

Gleijeses, Piero. Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States, 1944-1954. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Harmer, Tanya. Allende’s Chile and the Inter-American Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.

LeoGrande, William M. Our Own Backyard: The United States in Central America, 1977-1992. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Pastor, Robert A. Whirlpool: U.S. Foreign Policy toward Latin America and the Caribbean. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Rabe, Stephen G. Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anti-Communism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Schwartzberg, Steven J. Democracy and US Policy in Latin America during the Truman Years. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2003.


Middle East

Bill, James A. The Eagle and the Lion: The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Heiss, Mary Ann. “Real Men Don’t Wear Pajamas: Anglo-American Cultural Perceptions of Mohammed Mossadeq and the Iranian Oil Nationalization Dispute,” in Empire and Revolution: The United States and the Third World Since 1945, edited by Peter L. Hahn and Mary Ann Heiss. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2001. [Book Chapter]

Little, Douglas. American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East Since 1945. 3rd ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Little, Douglas. Us Versus Them: The United States, Radical Islam, and the Rise of the Green Threat. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

McAlister, Melani. Epic Encounters:Culture, Media, & U.S. Interests in the Middle East since 1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage, 1979.

Shannon, Kelly J. U.S. Foreign Policy and Muslim Women’s Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.

Yaqub, Salim. Containing Arab Nationalism: The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East. New Cold War History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Yaqub, Salim. Imperfect Strangers: Americans, Arabs, and US-Middle East Relations in the 1970s. United States in the World. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2016.


Primary Sources

Minority Military Experiences During the Cold War

The Korean War

Duke University Library, Durham, North Carolina. African American soldier's Korean War photograph album, circa 1950-1953.                       

Korean War Legacy Foundation. “Memory Bank: African Americans in the Korean War.”

Note: See YouTube video section for interviews with African American veterans Congressman Charles Rangel and John Gragg.

Pope Jr., O. Eliot. “Forgotten Soldiers from a Forgotten War: Oral History Testimonies of African American Korean War Veterans.” Loyola University Chicago. 2017. [Dissertation]


The Vietnam War

Del Rosario, Carina A. A Different Battle: Stories of Asian Pacific American Veterans. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999. [Oral History]

Goodman, Walter. “Black Soldiers in Vietnam,” in The New York Times. May 20, 1986. [Newspaper Article]

Goodwin, Gerard F. “Black and White in Vietnam,” in The New York Times. July 19, 2017. [Newspaper Article]

Trujillo, Charley, ed. Soldados: Chicanos in Vietnam. San Jose: Chusma House, 1990. [Oral History]

Wallace, Terry. Bloods: Black Veterans of the Vietnam War: An Oral History. New York: Ballantine Books, 1984. [Oral History]

Whelchel, Toshio. From Pearl Harbor to Saigon: Japanese American Soldiers and the Vietnam War. London: Verso, 1999. [Oral History]

White, Bobby, ed. Post 8195: Black Veterans Tell Their Vietnam Stories. Silver Spring, MD: Beckham Publications Group, 2013.  

Ybarra, Lea. Vietnam Veteranos: Chicanos Recall the War. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004. [Oral History]      



Ali, Muhammad. The Greatest: My Own Story. New York: Hart-Davis MacGibbon, 1975.

Castro, Fidel. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. New York: Scribner, 2006.  

Janken, Kenneth R. White: The Autobiography of Mr. White, Mr. NAACP. New York: New Press, 2003.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King. Edited by Clayborne Carson. New York: Warner Books, 1998.

Khan, Mohammed Ayub. Friends Not Masters: A Political Autobiography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.  

Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Biography: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Boston: Little, Brown, and Boston, 1995.

Nehru, Jawaharlal. An Autobiography. New York: Penguin Books, 1936.

El-Sadat, Anwar. In Search of Identity: An Autobiography. New York: HarperCollins, 1978.  

Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza. Answer to History. New York: Stein & Day Pub, 1980.

Stokely, Carmichael. Stokely Speaks: From Black Power to Pan-Africanism. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1971.



Documentaries (Listed Chronologically)

Same Mud, Same Blood. NBC Documentary. 1967.


Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Movement. PBS. 1987.

Cold War. CNN. 1998.

Which Way Home: Asian American Vietnam Veterans. Directed by Gina Hotta. Radio Program. Los Angeles, Pacific Radio Archives. Broadcast May 20, 1992.

Nakamura, Robert A. “Looking Like the Enemy.” Documentary. Los Angeles, 1996.

Soldados: Chicanos in Viet Nam. Directed by Charley Trujillo. Documentary. San Jose, Chusma House Documentary. 2003.

Stories of Service Series. On Two Fronts: Latinos & Vietnam. Season 1, Episode 5. Aired September 22, 2015.

Black Vietnam: Into the Light. A film by Ann C. James. 2020.

Asian Americans. PBS Documentary. 2020.

  • Episode 3: Good Americans
  • Episode 4: Generation Rising
  • Episode 5: Breaking Through


Hollywood Films (Listed Chronologically)

Michael Mann. Ali. 2001.

Clint Eastwood. Invictus. 2009.

Lee Daniels. The Butler. 2013.

DuVernay, Ava. Selma. 2014.

Theodore Melfi. Hidden Figures. 2016.

Jeff Nichols. Loving. 2016.

Spike Lee. Da 5 Bloods. 2020.



The Scottish Centre for Global History: 4-part series on the British Anti-Apartheid Movement


YouTube Videos 

Minority Military Experiences During the Cold War

The Korean War          

BBC Sounds, “Fighting Together in Korea- African Americans in the Korean War” [Radio Program]

Joseph Rodriguez, Medal of Honor, Korean War

Memory Bank: African Americans in the Korean War: Interview with Charles Rangel

Memory Bank: African Americans in the Korean War: Interview with John Gragg


The Vietnam War

Voices Veteranos: Mexican America and the Legacy of Vietnam

Soldados: Chicanos in Vietnam

Valentia: Mexican-Americans in World War II

African Americans Veterans Discuss Their Experiences in Vietnam- Part I

African Americans Veterans Discuss Their Experiences in Vietnam- Part II

Asian/Pacific American Veterans Share Their Experiences in Vietnam

Native American Veterans Share Their Experiences in Vietnam


ARCHIVES (Selected)

Presidential Archives

Harry S. Truman Presidential Library, Independence, Missouri

Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Abilene, Kansas

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Boston, Massachusetts

Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library, Austin, Texas

  • Oral Histories: Clifford Alexander, A. Philip Randolph, Roy Wilkins, Andrew Young Jr., Whitney Young Jr.

Richard M. Nixon, Yorba Linda, California

Gerald Ford Presidential Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Atlanta, Georgia

Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California

George H. W. Bush Presidential Library, College Station, Texas


University Archives

Columbia University, New York, New York

  • Oral Histories: Anne Braden, Edwin King, Bayard Rustin, Roy Wilkins, Papers of Whitney M. Young Jr., Butler Library, Rare Book and Manuscript Division

Duke University Library, Durham, North Carolina

Emory University, Stuart A. Rose Library, Manuscript and Rare Book Collection, Atlanta, Georgia

  • Papers of Leon Sullivan and A. Philip Randolph

Michigan State University Library, East Lansing, Michigan

New York University, Tamiment Library Special Collections

Texas Tech University, The Vietnam Center, the Vietnam Archive Oral History Project, Lubbock, Texas

  • Oral History Collection: Vietnam Veterans

UC Berkeley Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California

  • Oral History Collection: Veterans of the Armed Forces
    • Gordon Coleman interview (African American veteran of the Korean War)
    • George Bolton interview (African American veteran of the Vietnam War)
    • Grant Davis interview (African American veteran of the Vietnam War)

UC Los Angeles, Charles E. Young Research Library, Los Angeles, California

UC Santa Barbara Davidson Library, Santa Barbara, California

Yale University Library, New Haven, Connecticut


Federal Archives

Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.                                              

  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records (NAACP)                       


NGO Archives

Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Atlanta, Georgia

  • Congress of Racial Equality Papers, Martin Luther King, Jr, Papers, Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Series III: Speeches, Sermons, Articles, Statements, Southern Christian Leadership Conference Papers, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Papers


International Archives

Contemporary Affairs at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

  • Contains papers of South African heads of state

Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO), Pretoria, South Africa.

National Archives of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa

Ishikawa Mao 石川真生 (photographer), Atsuki hibi in Okinawa 熱き日々 in オキナワ (Kyoto: Foiru, 2013); Atsuki hibi in Camp Hansen! 熱き日々 in キャンプ·ハンセン!! (Okinawa: Aaman, 1982); Red Flower = Akabana, the Women of Okinawa (NY: Session Press, 2017); Ishikawa Mao shashinshū : Firipin "dekasegi josei no kokyō o tazuneru" 石川真生写真集 : フィリピン「出稼ぎ女性の故鄉を訪ねる」(Ishikawa Mao Photobook: Visiting the Hometowns of Filipina Women Immigrant Workers; Okinawa: self-published, 1989); Okinawa Soul 沖縄ソウル (Okinawa: Ota shuppan, 2002).

Note: Ishikawa worked for many years at off-base bars heavily frequented by U.S. servicemembers who were members of/associated with the Black Panthers. Her photobooks relate themes of Okinawan/Black solidarity against oppression/discrimination by Japanese/white majorities, and other related themes.

Kuniyoshi Kazuo 国吉和夫, Shashinshu Kichi Okinawa ("photo collection: military base Okinawa") (Okinawa: Nirai-sha, 1987)
Kuniyoshi Kazuo, STAND! (Okinawa: Taira Jun + Matsumoto Taro, 2012)

Note: Kuniyoshi was a photojournalist for many years for the Ryukyu Shinpo, Okinawa's oldest and largest newspaper. These are two books of photos spanning a wide variety of themes and events in Occupied Okinawa (1945-1972), including many photos of the 1970 Koza Riot, in which Okinawans burned and flipped cars belonging to white U.S. servicemembers but were careful not to attack African-Americans, out of a sense of solidarity for the Black soldiers' fight against segregation and racism.